European Elections: EU 2024 Election Agenda and Challenges Encountered

13.05.2024

People, being social beings, tend to express their thoughts as part of their lives. The ideas expressed can be done in many different areas and ways. People who frequently communicate with each other in social life exchange ideas as a part of their lives. Mutually exchanged and shared ideas also lead to the emergence of new ideas and thought structures. Approval of the ideas shared within the community by the community creates a sense of belonging for people. Acceptance of ideas is equivalent to acquiescence and adoption by the community. Approved ideas enable people to identify themselves with the community. The easiest way to express human ideas in communities is to share thoughts in society. People who begin to develop belonging to society now begin to act as a part and subject of society. This belonging also gives people social awareness. Thus, people begin to shape their behaviour and thoughts according to the society they belong to. The existence and sharing of ideas outside the dominant political power in society dates back to the Ancient Greek period. The established assemblies made it easier for the people to express their opinions. Accordingly, developing democracy is also compatible with the foundations of human existence. Although ancient Greece had a fragmented social structure based on class, gender and ethnicity, at least some of the society had various rights such as expressing their opinions and voting. These rights also include the right to political participation. People who share their thoughts about social structure and administration through assemblies have a guiding role in the administration and political structure.

Parliament culture, which is inspired by ancient Greece and later adopted by other societies, is still widely used today. Sharing the ideas and opinions of the public through representatives in parliaments enables people to participate in government through democracy. The development of liberal democracy in the 20th century and its adoption by various world states also facilitated people’s political participation. Europe, which has pioneered the adoption of liberal democracy, also stands out as one of the leading names in democracy and political participation. When the history of Europe is examined, it is noticeable that the democratic infrastructure it has today began to settle in the geography of the region since the Middle Ages. The referendum held in 1215 for the adoption of Magna Carta laid the foundations of the electoral culture in European society. The elections of 1215, which had a more limited participation compared to today’s understanding of democracy and equality, can be considered an important source for the election culture that will be created in the following years. The European Union (EU), the most comprehensive political formation in the European geography, has adopted the principles of democracy and equality since its establishment. The EU’s adoption of the principle of democracy has facilitated the development and foundation of democracy and political culture in the nation-states that are members of the Union. The civil society and political culture formed in the member states of the Union have enabled the protection and development of democracy.

The democracy index, prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) affiliated with The Economist, reflects the level of democratization in the countries of the world. When the democracy index in the European geography is examined, it is noticeable that there are large differences compared to other regions. The reason for this can be explained in many different contexts. The fact that the democracy culture that has developed and become widespread in Europe dates back to ancient times, the EU founding principles, the development levels of the member states, economic advantages, political society and political culture can be listed among these reasons. The deep-rooted history of democracy in Europe is very effective in both local governments and EU administration. These effects also facilitate the consolidation and supervision of democracy within the EU. The three bodies in the EU governance scheme are; The EU Commission, the EU Parliament and the EU Council ensure the adoption and implementation of democracy within the Union.

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